Skip to main content
Geert Raes

Prof. Dr. ir. Geert RAES




Geert Raes is staff scientist and valorization manager at the VIB Myeloid Cell Immunology lab and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel Cellular and Molecular Immunology lab. In addition to being trained as an immunologist, with a focus on tumour immunology and in vivo applications of nanobodies, he has experience in compiling, coordinating, reporting on and valorization of scientific projects with a focus on collaborative projects and interaction with industry. He is co-founder of the VUB spin-off companies Precirix and Abscint.


Room E8.08
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Pleinlaan 2
1050 Brussels


<em>In vivo</em> Visualization of M2 Macrophages in the Myocardium After Myocardial Infarction (MI) Using <em><sup>68</sup></em> Ga-NOTA-Anti-MMR Nb: Targeting Mannose Receptor (MR, CD206) on M2 Macrophages


Front Cardiovasc Med. 2022 Apr 25;9:889963. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2022.889963. eCollection 2022.


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Wound healing after myocardial infarction (MI) is a dynamic and complex multiple phase process, and a coordinated cellular response is required for...

Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy in Multiple Myeloma: Challenges, Opportunities, and Future Directions


Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 14;23(2):904. doi: 10.3390/ijms23020904.


Immunotherapeutic approaches, including adoptive cell therapy, revolutionized treatment in multiple myeloma (MM). As dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells and key initiators of...

Imaging of Glioblastoma Tumor-Associated Myeloid Cells Using Nanobodies Targeting Signal Regulatory Protein Alpha


Front Immunol. 2021 Nov 30;12:777524. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.777524. eCollection 2021.


Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor. Glioblastomas contain a large non-cancerous stromal compartment including various populations of tumor-associated...

Formatting and gene-based delivery of a human PD-L1 single domain antibody for immune checkpoint blockade


Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev. 2021 Jun 4;22:172-182. doi: 10.1016/j.omtm.2021.05.017. eCollection 2021 Sep 10.


Monoclonal antibodies that target the inhibitory immune checkpoint axis consisting of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, have changed...

Lyophilization of NOTA-sdAbs: First step towards a cold diagnostic kit for <sup>68</sup>Ga-labeling


Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2021 Sep;166:194-204. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2021.06.012. Epub 2021 Jun 27.


Lyophilization is commonly used in the production of pharmaceutical compounds to increase the stability of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) by removing solvents. This...

<sup>68</sup>Ga-Labeling: Laying the Foundation for an Anti-Radiolytic Formulation for NOTA-sdAb PET Tracers


Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 May 10;14(5):448. doi: 10.3390/ph14050448.


During the preparation of [ 68 Ga]Ga-NOTA-sdAb at high activity, degradation of the tracers was observed, impacting the radiochemical purity (RCP). Increasing starting activities in radiolabelings...

Decorating sdAbs with Chelators: Effect of Conjugation on Biodistribution and Functionality


Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 Apr 25;14(5):407. doi: 10.3390/ph14050407.


Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) have proven to be valuable probes for molecular imaging. In order to produce such probes, one strategy is the functionalization of the reactive amine side chain of...

Single-Domain Antibody Nuclear Imaging Allows Noninvasive Quantification of LAG-3 Expression by Tumor-Infiltrating Leukocytes and Predicts Response of Immune Checkpoint Blockade


J Nucl Med. 2021 Nov;62(11):1638-1644. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.120.258871. Epub 2021 Mar 12.


Recent advances in the field of immune-oncology led to the discovery of next-generation immune checkpoints (ICPs). Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), being the most widely studied...

Development and Characterization of Nanobodies Targeting the Kupffer Cell


Front Immunol. 2021 Feb 22;12:641819. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.641819. eCollection 2021.


Nanobodies that are derived from single-chain antibodies of camelids have served as powerful tools in diagnostics, therapeutics and investigation of membrane receptors' structure and...

IL1β Promotes Immune Suppression in the Tumor Microenvironment Independent of the Inflammasome and Gasdermin D


Cancer Immunol Res. 2021 Mar;9(3):309-323. doi: 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-20-0431. Epub 2020 Dec 23.


IL1β is a central mediator of inflammation. Secretion of IL1β typically requires proteolytic maturation by the inflammasome and formation of membrane pores by gasdermin D (...

Phase I Trial of <sup>131</sup>I-GMIB-Anti-HER2-VHH1, a New Promising Candidate for HER2-Targeted Radionuclide Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients


J Nucl Med. 2021 Aug 1;62(8):1097-1105. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.120.255679. Epub 2020 Dec 4.


131 I-GMIB-anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-VHH1 is a targeted radionuclide theranostic agent directed at HER2-expressing cancers. VHH1 is a single-domain...

Systemic Reprogramming of Monocytes in Cancer


Front Oncol. 2020 Sep 17;10:1399. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2020.01399. eCollection 2020.


Monocytes influence multiple aspects of tumor progression, including antitumor immunity, angiogenesis, and metastasis, primarily by infiltrating tumors, and differentiating into tumor-...

Anti-human PD-L1 Nanobody for Immuno-PET Imaging: Validation of a Conjugation Strategy for Clinical Translation


Biomolecules. 2020 Sep 29;10(10):1388. doi: 10.3390/biom10101388.


Immune checkpoints, such as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), limit T-cell function and tumor cells use this ligand to escape the anti-tumor immune response. Treatments with monoclonal antibodies blocking...

Innate Immune Defense Mechanisms by Myeloid Cells That Hamper Cancer Immunotherapy


Front Immunol. 2020 Jul 9;11:1395. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01395. eCollection 2020.


Over the past decade, cancer immunotherapy has been steering immune responses toward cancer cell eradication. However, these immunotherapeutic approaches are hampered by the tumor-...

Theranostics in immuno-oncology using nanobody derivatives


Theranostics. 2019 Oct 15;9(25):7772-7791. doi: 10.7150/thno.34941. eCollection 2019.


Targeted therapy and immunotherapy have become mainstream in cancer treatment. However, only patient subsets benefit from these expensive therapies, and often responses are short-lived...